Coaching is non-judgemental collaborative support with professional and personal life by an expert to help:

• Improve surgical decision-making, performance and patient outcomes
• Improve communication, training and teamwork skills
• Plan and execute a career transition
• Improve work-life balance
• Achieve goals

Why do surgeons need coaching? Here’s an excellent answer from Atul Gawande. For him, it immediately brought “…a whole other level of awareness.”

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Despite the intense and sometimes overwhelming pressures of being a surgeon, any surgeon who is serious about performance should be able to achieve performance expertise – whoever they are, wherever they are from and whatever stage they are at.

For over a decade, I have coached many surgeons across specialties, grades, and countries. Some began coaching after reaching the point of wanting to quit surgery

Attendee Testimonials

“The best course I have attended in the last 10 years.”

Alex Kocheta, Consultant Orthopaedic Surgeon, Sheffield, UK

“Real insights into the things that affect all of our actions and decision making, but most of us are not really aware of.”

David Snow, Consultant ENT Surgeon, Shropshire, UK

“I found the course fascinating and would like to take it further within my own practice.”

Martin Porter, ENT surgeon, Worcester Royal Hospital, UK

“A fabulous course which really made me think differently about what makes for a good surgeon and how you can get the best out of training.”

Professor Ray Clark, ENT surgeon, Liverpool, UK

“This was an eye opener for me. l believe it presents a useful tool for all practicing surgeons to stay on top of their game.”

Mr. Cambell Tunde, Consultant Transplant Surgeon, Manchester Royal Infirmary, UK

Client outcomes include improved overall performance, reduction in stress, better interpersonal relationships, optimum confidence, higher job satisfaction and many other personal and professional improvements. Through coaching sessions, surgeons feeling despondent have regained competency and are now performing well with good job satisfaction. Others have attained mastery in their chosen field.

Coaching can nurture a surgeon’s potential to be ready for the challenges that they will face in their career. It aims to make the most of efforts the surgeon has already taken and use all available resources to achieve an individual goals.

My approach to team performance focuses on the building blocks of collective performance, helping to establish a strong individual and collective psychological foundation with the right habits to drive ongoing development.

These benefits have been supported by my own research (1) as well as that of others (2), which has shown that surgical coaching interventions have a significantly positive impact on surgeons’ perception and attitudes, their technical and nontechnical skills, and performance measures. Further evidence of coaching efficacy is provided below.

Surgeons by nature are focused on achieving good outcomes and their goals. But expert surgeons have a better understanding of how to do this consistently, namely by focusing their attention on the process of decision-making and performance.

Decoding the process of expert performance is one of the principles of surgical coaching.

Surgical coaching can be delivered on-line either individually or in groups. For more information, please get in touch here.


  1. Cragg J, Mushtaq F, Lal N, et al. Surgical cognitive simulation improves real-world surgical performance: randomized study. BJS Open. 2021;5(3):zrab003. doi:10.1093/bjsopen/zrab003
  2. Min H, Morales DR, Orgill D, Smink DS, Yule S. Systematic review of coaching to enhance surgeons’ operative performance. Surgery. 2015;158(5):1168-1191. doi:10.1016/j.surg.2015.03.007

Evidence that Coaching Works

A collection of papers and studies in support of surgical coaching.

Here is a collection of recent papers and studies that show that coaching works.

Alameddine MB, Englesbe MJ, Waits SA. A Video-Based Coaching Intervention to Improve Surgical Skill in Fourth-Year Medical Students. Journal of Surgical Education. 2018;75(6):1475-1479. doi:10.1016/j.jsurg.2018.04.003
Beasley HL, Ghousseini HN, Wiegmann DA, Brys NA, Pavuluri Quamme SR, Greenberg CC. Strategies for Building Peer Surgical Coaching Relationships. JAMA Surgery. 2017;152(4):e165540. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2016.5540
Bonrath EM, Dedy NJ, Gordon LE, Grantcharov TP. Comprehensive Surgical Coaching Enhances Surgical Skill in the Operating Room: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Annals of Surgery. 2015;262(2):205-212. doi:10.1097/SLA.0000000000001214
Bull NB, Silverman CD, Bonrath EM. Targeted surgical coaching can improve operative self-assessment ability: A single-blinded nonrandomized trial. Surgery. 2020;167(2):308-313. doi:10.1016/j.surg.2019.08.002
Byrnes ME, Engler TA, Greenberg CC, Fry BT, Dombrowski J, Dimick JB. Coaching as a Mechanism to Challenge Surgical Professional Identities. Annals of Surgery. 2021;274(2):319-323. doi:10.1097/SLA.0000000000003707
El-Gabri D, McDow AD, Quamme SP, Hooper-Lane C, Greenberg CC, Long KL. Surgical Coaching for Advancement of Global Surgical Skills and Capacity: A Systematic Review. Journal of Surgical Research. 2020;246:499-505. doi:10.1016/j.jss.2019.09.039
Foley K, Granchi N, Reid J, Leopardi L, Maddern G. Peer Coaching as a Form of Performance Improvement: What Surgeons Really Think. Journal of Surgical Education. 2021;78(2):525-532. doi:10.1016/j.jsurg.2020.08.005
Gagnon LH, Abbasi N. Systematic review of randomized controlled trials on the role of coaching in surgery to improve learner outcomes. The American Journal of Surgery. 2018;216(1):140-146. doi:10.1016/j.amjsurg.2017.05.003
Gleeson C. How Cleveland Clinic has saved $133M in physician retention. Becker’s Hospital Review.
Greenberg CC, Dombrowski J, Dimick JB. Video-Based Surgical Coaching: An Emerging Approach to Performance Improvement. JAMA Surgery. 2016;151(3):282-283. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2015.4442
Greenberg CC, Ghousseini HN, Pavuluri Quamme SR, Beasley HL, Wiegmann DA. Surgical Coaching for Individual Performance Improvement. Annals of Surgery. 2015;261(1):32-34. doi:10.1097/SLA.0000000000000776
Greenberg CC, Ghousseini HN, Pavuluri Quamme SR, et al. A Statewide Surgical Coaching Program Provides Opportunity for Continuous Professional Development. Annals of Surgery. 2018;267(5):868-873. doi:10.1097/SLA.0000000000002341
Greenberg JA, Jolles S, Sullivan S, et al. A structured, extended training program to facilitate adoption of new techniques for practicing surgeons. Surg Endosc. 2018;32(1):217-224. doi:10.1007/s00464-017-5662-2
Hathaway H, Heinsohn T. On the Merits of Surgical Coaching in Continuous Professional Development: Comments on “Coaching Experts: Applications to Surgeons and Continuing Professional Development.” Surg Innov. 2019;26(2):265-266. doi:10.1177/1553350618819518
Ibrahim AM, Dimick JB. What Metrics Accurately Reflect Surgical Quality? Annu Rev Med. 2018;69(1):481-491. doi:10.1146/annurev-med-060116-022805
Jensen JN, Lin KY. Discussion: Feasibility of Surgeon-Delivered Audit and Feedback Incorporating Peer Surgical Coaching to Reduce Fistula Incidence following Cleft Palate Repair: A Pilot Trial. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 2020;146(1):154-155. doi:10.1097/PRS.0000000000006963
Kaijser M, van Ramshorst G, van Wagensveld B, Pierie JP. Current Techniques of Teaching and Learning in Bariatric Surgical Procedures: A Systematic Review. Journal of Surgical Education. 2018;75(3):730-738. doi:10.1016/j.jsurg.2017.09.023
Karam MD, Thomas GW, Koehler DM, et al. Surgical Coaching from Head-Mounted Video in the Training of Fluoroscopically Guided Articular Fracture Surgery. JBJS. 2015;97(12):1031-1039. doi:10.2106/JBJS.N.00748
Kratzke IM, Kapadia MR. Surgical Coaching—It’s All About the Relationship. JAMA Surgery. 2021;156(1):50. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2020.4587
Leung Y, Salfinger S, Tan JJS, Frazer A. The introduction and the validation of a surgical encounter template to facilitate surgical coaching of gynaecologists at a metropolitan tertiary obstetrics and gynaecology hospital. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 2013;53(5):477-483. doi:10.1111/ajo.12116
Lin J, Reddy RM. Teaching, Mentorship, and Coaching in Surgical Education. Thoracic Surgery Clinics. 2019;29(3):311-320. doi:10.1016/j.thorsurg.2019.03.008
Mazer LM, Hu YY, Arriaga AF, et al. Evaluating Surgical Coaching: A Mixed Methods Approach Reveals More Than Surveys Alone. Journal of Surgical Education. 2018;75(6):1520-1525. doi:10.1016/j.jsurg.2018.03.009
Min H, Morales DR, Orgill D, Smink DS, Yule S. Systematic review of coaching to enhance surgeons’ operative performance. Surgery. 2015;158(5):1168-1191. doi:10.1016/j.surg.2015.03.007
Moore MD, Abelson JS, O’Mahoney P, Bagautdinov I, Yeo H, Watkins AC. Using GoPro to Give Video-Assisted Operative Feedback for Surgery Residents: A Feasibility and Utility Assessment. Journal of Surgical Education. 2018;75(2):497-502. doi:10.1016/j.jsurg.2017.07.024
Moulder JK, Louie M, Toubia T, Schiff LD, Siedhoff MT. The role of simulation and warm-up in minimally invasive gynecologic surgery. Current Opinion in Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2017;29(4):212-217. doi:10.1097/GCO.0000000000000368
Neville AL, Dauphine C, de Virgilio C. Assessing Surgical Coaching, a Sport in Its Infancy: The Wisconsin Surgical Coaching Rubric. JAMA Surgery. 2020;155(6):492. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2020.0425
Orlando MS, Greenberg CC, Quamme SRP, Yee A, Faerber AE, King CR. Surgical coaching in obstetrics and gynecology: an evidence-based strategy to elevate surgical education and promote lifelong learning. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology. 2022;227(1):51-56. doi:10.1016/j.ajog.2022.02.006
Perrone KH, Yang S, Mohamadipanah H, et al. Translating motion tracking data into resident feedback: An opportunity for streamlined video coaching. The American Journal of Surgery. 2020;219(4):552-556. doi:10.1016/j.amjsurg.2020.01.032
Pradarelli JC, Delisle M, Briggs A, Smink DS, Yule S. Identifying Naturalistic Coaching Behavior Among Practicing Surgeons in the Operating Room. Annals of Surgery. 2021;273(1):181-186. doi:10.1097/SLA.0000000000003368
Pradarelli JC, Hu YY, Dimick JB, Greenberg CC. The Value of Surgical Coaching Beyond Training. Advances in Surgery. 2020;54:31-47. doi:10.1016/j.yasu.2020.04.003
Pradarelli JC, Quamme SRP, Yee A, et al. Surgical coaching to achieve the ABMS vision for the future of continuing board certification. The American Journal of Surgery. 2021;221(1):4-10. doi:10.1016/j.amjsurg.2020.06.014
Pradarelli JC, Yule S, Panda N, et al. Optimizing the Implementation of Surgical Coaching Through Feedback From Practicing Surgeons. JAMA Surgery. 2021;156(1):42-49. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2020.4581
Pradarelli JC, Yule S, Panda N, et al. Surgeons’ Coaching Techniques in the Surgical Coaching for Operative Performance Enhancement (SCOPE) Program. Annals of Surgery. 2022;275(1):e91. doi:10.1097/SLA.0000000000004323
Rojas-Muñoz E, Cabrera ME, Lin C, et al. The System for Telementoring with Augmented Reality (STAR): A head-mounted display to improve surgical coaching and confidence in remote areas. Surgery. 2020;167(4):724-731. doi:10.1016/j.surg.2019.11.008
Shubeck SP, Kanters AE, Sandhu G, Greenberg CC, Dimick JB. Dynamics within peer-to-peer surgical coaching relationships: Early evidence from the Michigan Bariatric Surgical Collaborative. Surgery. 2018;164(2):185-188. doi:10.1016/j.surg.2018.03.009
Sitzman TJ, Tse RW, Allori AC, et al. Feasibility of Surgeon-Delivered Audit and Feedback Incorporating Peer Surgical Coaching to Reduce Fistula Incidence following Cleft Palate Repair: A Pilot Trial. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 2020;146(1):144-153. doi:10.1097/PRS.0000000000006907
Stulberg JJ, Huang R, Kreutzer L, et al. Association Between Surgeon Technical Skills and Patient Outcomes. JAMA Surgery. 2020;155(10):960-968. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2020.3007
Timberlake MD, Stefanidis D, Gardner AK. Examining the impact of surgical coaching on trainee physiologic response and basic skill acquisition. Surg Endosc. 2018;32(10):4183-4190. doi:10.1007/s00464-018-6163-7
Valanci-Aroesty S, Feldman LS, Fiore JF, Lee L, Fried GM, Mueller CL. Considerations for designing and implementing a surgical peer coaching program: an international survey. Surg Endosc. 2022;36(6):4593-4601. doi:10.1007/s00464-021-08760-z
Van Batavia JP, Shukla AR, Joshi RS, Reddy PP. Pediatric Urology and Global Health: Why Now and How to Build a Successful Global Outreach Program. Urologic Clinics of North America. 2018;45(4):623-631. doi:10.1016/j.ucl.2018.06.009
Vande Walle KA, Pavuluri Quamme SR, Leverson GE, et al. Association of Personality and Thinking Style With Effective Surgical Coaching. JAMA Surgery. 2020;155(6):480-485. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2020.0234
Vande Walle KA, Quamme SRP, Beasley HL, et al. Development and Assessment of the Wisconsin Surgical Coaching Rubric. JAMA Surgery. 2020;155(6):486-492. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2020.0424
Varban OA, Thumma JR, Carlin AM, Ghaferi AA, Dimick JB, Finks JF. Evaluating the Impact of Surgeon Self-awareness by Comparing Self Versus Peer Ratings of Surgical Skill and Outcomes for Bariatric Surgery. Annals of Surgery. 2022;276(1):128-132. doi:10.1097/SLA.0000000000004450
An Academy for Surgical Coaching and Johnson & Johnson Institute Surgical Coaching Program Improves Procedural Confidence and Goal Progression. The Academy for Surgical Coaching. Accessed November 24, 2022.

Surgical Metacognition

Smarter Decision-making for Surgeons

Dr Uttam Shiralker

Surgical Metacognition

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